African American 

 Time Line

Florida African American Time Line

           Juan las Canarias, a Black sailor, serves on Christopher Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria to the New World.

 Estevanico, an African slave, accompanies Andres de Dorants on an expedition to conquer Florida.

 A free African Spaniard serves as the interpreter on Coronados' expedition through southwest North America.

Juan Merion, a free African, blacksmith came to St. Augustine from Havana. 
                   By1683, he opened his own forge, blacksmithing for the royal armorer and private citizens.

 King Charles II of Spain issues a royal proclamation giving  liberty to all runway in Florida who become practicing Catholics.

Merchants Isavel de los Rios, a free Black woman and Captain Chrispin de Tapia, a free Black man testifies in a court case 
                  against several Apalachee Native Americans had given them counterfeit money.

Fugitive slaves from Carolina form a slave militia in St. Augustine. Two miles north of St. Augustine, they build  Fort Mose
                   and a small town.

The French and Indian War ends and Florida becomes an English colony.

The Spanish rescinds policy of religious sanctuary for fugitive slaves.

Escaped slaves from Georgia, South Carolina and Alabama join the military campaign of the Florida Seminoles
                   to keep their homelands.

In Duval, Nassau, and St. Johns counties, slaves and  free Blacks comprised 52 percent of the population.

Florida becomes the twenty-seventh state in the United States.

T. Thomas Fortune was born a slave in Marianna, Florida. Fortune later founds the newspaper New Age.

Florida seceded from the Union January 10. The next  month, Florida representatives participate in the
formation of the Confederate States.

The U.S. Congress established the Freedmen's Bureau to aid African Americans.

 Florida was readmitted to the Union with a new state constitution guaranteeing civil rights and giving blacks the right to vote.

Josiah T. Walls becomes Florida's first African American  member of the U.S. House of Representatives. 
                  Others African Americans politicians in Florida are John Wallace, Henry Harmon, Charles Pearce, Robert Meachem, Jonathan 
                  Gibbs and John Sunday of Pensacola.

 Eatonville a town in Orange County, Florida,
was one of the first all-black towns to be formed after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and, on August 15, 1887, was the first such town to be incorporated Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College is founded to provide higher education to African Americans.

 A. Philip Randolph is born in Crescent City, Florida Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, an African American AFL union.
Florida becomes the first state to use the poll tax to disenfranchise black voters.

Charles F. Dupont as the state's first elected black sheriff.
In January James Weldon Johnson writes the lyrics and his brother John Rosamond Johnson composes the music for Lift Every Voice and Sing in their hometown of Jacksonville, Florida in celebration of the birthday of Abraham Lincoln. The song is eventually adopted as the black national anthem.

Author Zora Neale Hurston is born in Earonville, Florida.

Mary McLeod Bethune founds the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Girls.

The first week of January a race riot erupts in Rosewood.

William "Bill" De Kova White, the first African American president of the National Baseball League was born in Lakewood.

Blanche Calloway is the first African American woman to vote in Miami.

Joe Lang Kershaw becomes the first African American elected to the Florida legislature in this century.

Governor Askew appoints Joseoh W. Hatchett of Pinellas County to the Supreme Court, the first African- American justice.

Daniel ' Chappie" James dies of a heart attack. He was the first African American four-star general.
His childhood home was close to Pensacola Navel Air Station and he dreamed of becoming an aviator.

Governor Lawton Chiles names former African American legislator, Doug Jamerson to be Commissioner of Education.